A team led by researchers from Washington State University’s Paul G. Allen School for Global Health has discovered a virus in a Russian bat similar to the virus behind COVID-19 that is “likely capable of infecting humans” and would be resistant to current vaccines, according to a news release.
Researchers discovered that the virus – which they are dubbing Khosta-2 – could be capable of infecting humans, and was resistant to antibodies produced by the COVID-19 vaccine.
Both Khosta-2 and SARS-CoV-2, the virus behind COVID-19, belong to the same subcategory of coronaviruses.
“Our research further demonstrates that sarbecoviruses circulating in wildlife outside of Asia — even in places like western Russia where the Khosta-2 virus was found — also pose a threat to global health and ongoing vaccine campaigns against SARS-CoV-2,” said Michael Letko, WSU virologist and corresponding author of the study.
Letko stressed how this gives us further proof of the importance of universal vaccines against respiratory viruses, instead of focusing specifically on COVID-19 variant strains.
“Unfortunately, many of our current vaccines are designed for specific viruses we know infect human cells or those that seem to pose the biggest risk to infect us. But that is a list that’s ever-changing,” Letko said. “We need to broaden the design of these vaccines to protect against all sarbecoviruses.”
When the Khosta-1 and Khosta-2 viruses were originally discovered in Russian bats in late 2020, it was thought that they posed no threat to humans. But researchers learned that, like SARS-CoV-2, Khosta-2 can use its spike protein to infect cells by attaching to a receptor protein found throughout human cells.
Then, using a serum made from blood samples of people vaccinated against COVID-19, the researchers saw that Khosta-2 was not neutralized by the vaccines.
Letko did say that the virus lacks some of the genes that are believed to be involved in disease development in humans, but that there is a risk of it recombining with a virus like SARS-CoV-2.
“When you see SARS-2 has this ability to spill back from humans and into wildlife, and then there are other viruses like Khosta-2 waiting in those animals with these properties we really don’t want them to have, it sets up this scenario where you keep rolling the dice until they combine to make a potentially riskier virus,” Letko said.